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Office jobs are among the positions hardest hit by computation ( 计算机主动化). Word processors and typists will lose about 93,000 jobs over the next few years, while 57,000 secretarial jobs will vanish. Blame the PC: today, many executives type their own memos and carry their "secretaries" in the palms of their hands. Time is also hard for stock clerks. whose ranks are expected to decrease by 68,000. And employees in manufacturing firms and wholesalers are being replaced with computerized systems.
But not everyone who loses a job will end up in the unemployment line. Many will shift to growing positions within their own companies. When new technologies shook up the telecom business, telephone operator Judy Dougherty pursued retraining. She is now a communications technician, earning about ＄64,000 per year. Of course, if you've been a tollbooth collector for the past 30 years, and you find yourself replaced by an E-ZPass machine, it may be of little consolation(抚慰)to know that the telecom field is booming.
And that’s just it：the service economy is fading；welcome to the expertise ( 专门常识) economy, To succeed in the new job market, you must be able to handle complex problems. Indeed, all but I of the 50 highest-paying occupations -air-traffic-controller-demand at least a bachelor's degree.
For those with just a high school diploma ( 卒业证书) ，it’s going to get tougher to find a well-paying job. Since fewer factory and clerical jobs will be available, what's left will be the jobs that computation can’t kill. Computers can’t clean offices，or care for Alzheimer’s patients ( 老年聪慧病人) . But，since most people have the skills to fill those positions，the wages stay painfully low，meaning computation could drive an even deeper wedge ( 楔子) between the rich and poor. The best advice now: never stop learning, and keep up with new technology.
For busy adults, of course, that can be tough. The good news is that the very technology that's reducing so many jobs is also making it easier to go back to school-without having to sit in a classroom. So-called Internet distance learning is hot, with more than three million students currently enrolled, and it's gaining credibility with employers.
Are you at risk of losing your job to a computer? Check the federal Bureau of Labor Statistics' Occupational Outlook Handbook, which is available online at bls.gov.
41. From the first paragraph we can infer that all of the following persons are easily thrown into unemployment EXCEPT _______.
B. stock clerks
42. In the second paragraph the author mentions the tollbooth collector to _______.